Artificial Intelligence

Extra-Geeky Chat/Conversations

This topic contains 10 replies, has 3 voices, and was last updated by  PopeBeanie 2 months, 2 weeks ago.

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  • #48213

    PopeBeanie
    Moderator

    I’m focusing here on conversations that less geeky people may not be interested in. I still want everyone to see how easy it is to pursue their own research, by fine tuning a two-way dialog.

    Most of the posts follow are examples that wouldn’t otherwise have occured to me to research, but having a two-way dialog with an “expert”, even when at times it’s imperfect, can usually be informative.It used to take me ten times longer in a Google Search session, with a good chance that I’d never get adequate answers, and they would be spread out amongst several different responses.

    In cases where ChatGPT responses are helpful but lengthy, I’m just posting my query, to show examples of the kinds of queries that produced satisfactory ChatGPT responses. Let me know if you want to see any of those responses.

    • This topic was modified 9 months, 2 weeks ago by  PopeBeanie.
    • This topic was modified 2 months, 2 weeks ago by  PopeBeanie. Reason: shortened and refined this way-too-long post
    #47995

    PopeBeanie
    Moderator

    Super Geeky Chat Example

    I can count on two fingers other AZ members who just might find the following GPT chat interesting, but I don’t even expect them to.

    After discovering that my hearing range unfortunately ends around 5kHz max, I’ve been researching ways to examine and even play back ultrasonic audio recordings. I already own a 31 band (known as 1/3 octave) stereo equalizer, and an octave doubler/halver, so I just need to find a way to semi-accurately display audio in 31 band stereo without spending hundreds of dollars.

    I asked ChatGPT how to design such a display, but with a twist I’ve been unable to find out there in an audio product: Display the stereo signal levels such that I can easily see in just one 31 band display 1) left, 2) right, and 3) left plus right in three different colors. Eventually I’ll set up my left and right channels to display my within-range (under 5k) vs my out of range (over 5k) audio  in just one display, so I can easily spot their possible harmonics in real time.

    GPT at least seems to understand exactly what I’m asking for, while almost instantly responding with suggestions that look very useful, if not totally accurate. I broke down my queries to make sure we were staying on track each time I upped the sophistication of the design I was looking for; I added the bold for query/response readability.


    DIY Audio Spectrum Analyzer.

    User
    design a relatively inexpensive dyi audio spectrum analyzer using off the shelf parts

    ChatGPT

    Designing a DIY audio spectrum analyzer using off-the-shelf parts can be a fun and rewarding project. Here’s a relatively inexpensive way to build one:

    Materials:
    – Arduino Uno or equivalent microcontroller board
    – MSGEQ7 chip
    – 3.5mm audio jack
    – Jumper wires
    – Breadboard
    – 16×2 LCD display
    – Potentiometer
    – Power supply (9V battery or AC adapter)

    Instructions:

    1. Start by connecting the audio jack to the MSGEQ7 chip. Use jumper wires to connect the left and right audio channels to the INL and INR pins, respectively. Connect the OUT pin to the microcontroller’s analog input pin A0.

    2. Connect the LCD display to the microcontroller. Use jumper wires to connect the display’s RS, EN, D4, D5, D6, and D7 pins to digital pins 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2, respectively.

    3. Connect the potentiometer to the microcontroller. Connect the potentiometer’s middle pin to analog input pin A1, and connect its outer pins to 5V and ground.

    4. Power the microcontroller and the MSGEQ7 chip using a 9V battery or AC adapter.

    5. Upload the following code to the microcontroller:

    `
    #include <LiquidCrystal.h>

    LiquidCrystal lcd(7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2);

    int spectrumValues[7];

    void setup() {
    Serial.begin(9600);
    lcd.begin(16, 2);
    }

    void loop() {
    for (int i = 0; i < 7; i++) {
    spectrumValues[i] = analogRead(A0);
    delay(5);
    }

    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print(“Audio Spectrum”);
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

    for (int i = 0; i < 7; i++) {
    int level = map(spectrumValues[i], 0, 1023, 0, 16);
    for (int j = 0; j < level; j++) {
    lcd.print(“#”);
    }
    lcd.print(” “);
    }

    int brightness = analogRead(A1);
    brightness = map(brightness, 0, 1023, 0, 255);
    lcd.setBacklight(brightness);
    }
    `

    6. Once the code is uploaded, you should see the spectrum analyzer in action. The LCD display will show a horizontal bar graph of the audio spectrum, with the low frequencies on the left and the high frequencies on the right. The brightness of the display can be adjusted using the potentiometer.

    Note: This project is relatively simple, and may not provide the accuracy or precision of a commercial spectrum analyzer. However, it can still be a fun and educational project for those interested in DIY electronics and audio engineering.

    User
    how many bands can this analyzer display?

    ChatGPT
    This audio spectrum analyzer can display 7 bands. The MSGEQ7 chip used in this project divides the audio spectrum into 7 frequency bands, and outputs the amplitude of each band as a voltage level, which is read by the microcontroller. The code then maps these voltage levels to a range of 0-16, and displays them as a horizontal bar graph on the LCD display. So, each bar represents the amplitude of a specific frequency band.

    User
    can you design an analyzer kind of like this but with 31 bands (also known as a 1/3 octave display)?

    ChatGPT
    Yes, it is possible to design an audio spectrum analyzer with 31 bands using a similar approach. However, it would require some additional hardware and software modifications. Here is a possible design:

    Materials:
    – Arduino Uno or equivalent microcontroller board
    – MSGEQ7 chip
    – 3.5mm audio jack
    – Jumper wires
    – Breadboard
    – 128×64 OLED display
    – 31 potentiometers (10k ohm)
    – Resistors (1k ohm)
    – Power supply (9V battery or AC adapter)

    Instructions:

    1. Start by connecting the audio jack to the MSGEQ7 chip. Use jumper wires to connect the left and right audio channels to the INL and INR pins, respectively. Connect the OUT pin to the microcontroller’s analog input pin A0.

    2. Connect the OLED display to the microcontroller. Use jumper wires to connect the display’s SCL and SDA pins to A5 and A4, respectively.

    3. Connect 31 potentiometers to the microcontroller. Connect the middle pins of the potentiometers to analog input pins A1 to A31. Connect the outer pins of the potentiometers to ground. Connect a 1k ohm resistor between the middle pin of each potentiometer and a 5V supply.

    4. Power the microcontroller and the MSGEQ7 chip using a 9V battery or AC adapter.

    5. Upload the following code to the microcontroller:

    `
    #include <Wire.h>
    #include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
    #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>

    Adafruit_SSD1306 display(128, 64, &Wire, -1);

    int spectrumValues[31];
    int barWidth;

    void setup() {
    Serial.begin(9600);
    display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C);
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.display();
    barWidth = 128 / 31;
    }

    void loop() {
    for (int i = 0; i < 31; i++) {
    spectrumValues[i] = analogRead(A0);
    delay(5);
    }

    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setTextSize(1);
    display.setTextColor(WHITE);

    for (int i = 0; i < 31; i++) {
    int level = map(spectrumValues[i], 0, 1023, 0, 63);
    int barHeight = map(level, 0, 63, 0, 32);
    display.drawRect(i * barWidth, 32 – barHeight, barWidth – 1, barHeight, WHITE);
    display.fillRect(i * barWidth, 32 – barHeight + 1, barWidth – 1, barHeight – 1, WHITE);
    display.setCursor(i * barWidth + 2, 2);
    display.print(i + 1);
    display.setCursor(i * barWidth + 2, 54);
    display.print(” “);
    }

    for (int i = 1; i < 32; i++) {
    int brightness = analogRead(i);
    brightness = map(brightness, 0, 1023, 0, 255);
    display.fillRect((i – 1) * barWidth, 0, barWidth – 1, 2, brightness);
    display.fillRect((i – 1) * barWidth, 62, barWidth – 1, 2, brightness);
    }

    display.display();
    }
    `

    6. Once the code is uploaded, you should see the 31-band spectrum analyzer in action. The OLED display will show a vertical bar graph of the audio spectrum, with the low frequencies at

    User
    is it possible to write code such that one can optionally visualize left and right channels in only one set of 31 bands, while displaying left and right as different colors (e.g. blue and red)? And when left and right signal occur simultaneously, display purple? i.e. i want to show both channels in one display of 31 columns, while still being able to visually distinguish between left, right, and combined left and right signals.

    ChatGPT
    Yes, it is possible to modify the code to visualize left and right channels in one set of 31 bands, while displaying them as different colors and displaying purple when the left and right signals occur simultaneously. Here’s a modified code that achieves this:

    `
    #include <Wire.h>
    #include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
    #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>

    Adafruit_SSD1306 display(128, 64, &Wire, -1);

    int spectrumValuesL[31];
    int spectrumValuesR[31];
    int barWidth;

    void setup() {
    Serial.begin(9600);
    display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C);
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.display();
    barWidth = 128 / 31;
    }

    void loop() {
    for (int i = 0; i < 31; i++) {
    spectrumValuesL[i] = analogRead(A0);
    spectrumValuesR[i] = analogRead(A0 + 1);
    delay(5);
    }

    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setTextSize(1);
    display.setTextColor(WHITE);

    for (int i = 0; i < 31; i++) {
    int levelL = map(spectrumValuesL[i], 0, 1023, 0, 63);
    int levelR = map(spectrumValuesR[i], 0, 1023, 0, 63);
    int barHeightL = map(levelL, 0, 63, 0, 32);
    int barHeightR = map(levelR, 0, 63, 0, 32);

    if (levelL > 0 && levelR == 0) {
    display.drawRect(i * barWidth, 32 – barHeightL, barWidth – 1, barHeightL, BLUE);
    display.fillRect(i * barWidth, 32 – barHeightL + 1, barWidth – 1, barHeightL – 1, BLUE);
    } else if (levelL == 0 && levelR > 0) {
    display.drawRect(i * barWidth, 32 – barHeightR, barWidth – 1, barHeightR, RED);
    display.fillRect(i * barWidth, 32 – barHeightR + 1, barWidth – 1, barHeightR – 1, RED);
    } else if (levelL > 0 && levelR > 0) {
    int levelLR = (levelL + levelR) / 2;
    int barHeightLR = map(levelLR, 0, 63, 0, 32);
    display.drawRect(i * barWidth, 32 – barHeightLR, barWidth – 1, barHeightLR, PURPLE);
    display.fillRect(i * barWidth, 32 – barHeightLR + 1, barWidth – 1, barHeightLR – 1, PURPLE);
    }

    display.setCursor(i * barWidth + 2, 2);
    display.print(i + 1);
    display.setCursor(i * barWidth + 2, 54);
    display.print(” “);
    }

    display.display();
    }
    `

    This code reads both the left and right audio channels into separate arrays and maps the amplitude of each frequency band to a value between 0 and 63. It then checks the amplitude of each band in both channels and uses different colors to draw the bars for the left channel, right channel, and combined left and right channel. If only the left channel has a signal, it uses blue color; if only the right channel has a signal, it uses red color; and if both channels have [ChatGPT abruptly quit here for some reason, but it’s enough for me]

    #48214

    PopeBeanie
    Moderator

    ME
    A health question. When I sit down to poo, my eyes tear up, and sometimes I even feel capillary expansion in my nasal cavities. What is the physiological cause of this?

    ChatGPT
    Your symptoms appear to be somewhat unusual, but it’s possible they might be related to the complex interplay of bodily functions occurring during bowel movements. Here are a few theories, although this is speculative and should not be taken as definitive medical advice:

    1. Vagal nerve stimulation: The process of defecation can sometimes stimulate the vagus nerve, which is responsible for controlling a variety of body functions, including heart rate, digestion, and certain reflexes like coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting. Overstimulation of the vagus nerve can cause a range of symptoms, including watery eyes and nasal congestion.
    2. Bodily strain: If you’re straining during bowel movements, this can cause pressure to build up in your face and eyes, which might lead to tearing or a sensation of capillary expansion.
    3. Emotional response: There’s also the possibility of an emotional response to the act of defecation. For some people, this can trigger a response similar to crying, with tears and nasal congestion.
    4. Allergies or sensitivities: If you’re allergic or sensitive to something in your bathroom environment (for instance, a certain kind of toilet paper, air freshener, or cleaning product), this might cause your eyes to water and your nasal passages to feel congested.
      Gustatory rhinorrhea: This is a condition where your nose runs when you eat certain foods. It’s also possible that certain foods might cause similar symptoms when they pass through your system during defecation.

    These are just theories, and the best course of action would be to consult with a healthcare provider. They can provide a more accurate diagnosis based on a complete medical history and examination. If your symptoms are causing significant discomfort or concern, please seek medical attention.

    ME
    That was a good attempt to answer, thank you. But this seem like there’s a more common cause that’s not a sign of the things you suggest. For example, I’ve even seen other animals tear up a little when defecating.

    ChatGPT
    Thank you for your feedback. Given the more general context you’ve provided, and the fact that this phenomenon is observed in other animals as well, it’s possible that the process of defecation itself could be causing these symptoms.

    Defecation is a complex physiological process that involves not only the digestive system but also the nervous system. When we defecate, the body increases the pressure within the abdomen to help expel the feces. This increase in intra-abdominal pressure can also affect other parts of the body, including the eyes and the nasal passages. It’s similar to the pressure changes that occur when you cough, sneeze, or strain in any way, which can cause your eyes to water.

    Moreover, the act of defecation stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for ‘rest-and-digest’ functions. Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system can lead to various responses, such as lacrimation (tearing), salivation, and even a runny nose.

    However, this is a general explanation and may not apply to every case. If the symptoms are severe or causing you distress, it would still be a good idea to discuss it with a healthcare provider. They can help determine if there’s an underlying issue that needs to be addressed.

    ME
    I like the suggestion that the parasympathetic nervous system is more active at the moment of defecation, and I feel this happening to me even before I push abdominally. I wonder now if mucous membranes in general, not just nasally, become physiologically more active.

    ChatGPT
    Yes, the parasympathetic nervous system plays a significant role in regulating the activity of mucous membranes throughout the body. It controls various ‘rest-and-digest’ functions, including the secretion of saliva in the mouth, the production of digestive enzymes in the stomach, and the secretion of mucus in the airways and digestive tract.

    Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system — for example, during defecation — can lead to an increase in these secretory activities. This can result in symptoms like a runny nose, watery eyes, increased salivation, and possibly an increase in other mucus secretions.

    However, it’s important to note that while this explanation is plausible, it’s somewhat speculative. The functioning of the body is incredibly complex and can vary significantly from person to person. If you have any concerns about these symptoms or if they’re causing you distress, I would recommend discussing them with a healthcare provider. They can provide you with more accurate information based on your specific circumstances.

    —————-

    In spite of ChatGPT’s thoughtful suggestion to rely on healthcare provider input on this topic, I’m satisfied that the original question I had in mind is now adequately answered. (Elephant in the room, mucous membranes also exist down there, at the exit chute.)

    Then I belatedly added, in better words, what was really on my mind. (WHY did it take so long for me to word this properly?)

    ME
    Actually, I also meant to emphasize that I felt the symptoms even before I started to push. I.e., what was most interesting to me was the psychosomatic aspect that kicked in as soon as I sat down on the toilet seat!

    ChatGPT
    Ah, I see, you’re noticing these symptoms even before the physical act of defecation begins. That’s quite interesting and further supports the idea that the parasympathetic nervous system could be playing a significant role.

    The act of sitting on the toilet is a clear signal to your body that you’re preparing to defecate. Your body likely begins to prepare for this process in response to this signal, even before you actually start to push. The activation of the parasympathetic nervous system in this preparatory stage could be causing the symptoms you’re experiencing.

    This is actually quite similar to something known as the ‘cephalic phase’ of digestion, where simply seeing, smelling, or thinking about food can trigger digestive processes like salivation and the production of stomach acid. Similarly, just the act of sitting on the toilet might trigger preparatory responses for defecation.

    Again, this is a plausible explanation based on what we know about the nervous system and digestion, but individual experiences can vary widely. And as always, if these symptoms are causing you concern, it would be a good idea to discuss them with a healthcare provider.

    #48219

    PopeBeanie
    Moderator

    Note that the following set of queries are extensive. I’m doing this research because I plan to post a youtube video that can help some people improve success of receiving sufficient signal for their atomic clock to set itself.

    I estimate a 10 second to fifteen minute reading time, depending on your level of geekness, and, erm, interest in the topic.

     

    WWVB Signal Propagation, Amplification and Re-radiation

    (I’m not just showing off here, I actually learned a lot, and any type of research you’re personally interested might also require some extensive, two-way conversation with ChatGPT. While again, the more complicated the topic, the better off we are just not bothering with Google Searches.)

    ME
    i have so-called “atomic” time pieces that set themselves by the WWVB signal coming from Ft Collins, CO. They used to fail to pick up the signal daily, 90% of the time, or 100% of the time during some weeks. Then they started working about 90% to 100% of the time when I hung them from the horizontally oriented metal bar on a tie rack. The location and angular orientation of the tie rack had only a marginal affect on the success of locking onto the WWVB signal. How can hanging from a tie rack make such a big difference in the strength of the WWVB signal?

    ChatGPT
    The WWVB signal from Fort Collins, CO, is a low-frequency (60 kHz) radio signal that’s used to synchronize so-called “atomic” clocks across much of North America. These clocks have a built-in radio receiver that picks up the WWVB signal, which is broadcast continuously and contains an encoded time code.

    The strength and quality of the WWVB signal that your clock receives can be influenced by many factors, including the distance from the transmitter, local interference, atmospheric conditions, and even the orientation and placement of the clock itself. Here are a few factors that could explain why hanging your clock from a tie rack seems to improve its signal reception:

    1. Height and Position: Radio signals tend to be stronger at higher elevations, where there are fewer obstacles like buildings or trees to block or disrupt the signal. By hanging your clock from a tie rack, you’re raising its height, which might be helping it receive a stronger signal.
    2. Metal Objects: The tie rack you mentioned is made of metal. Metal objects can sometimes act as a sort of antenna, attracting and amplifying radio signals. This could be helping to boost the WWVB signal and make it easier for your clock to pick up.
    3. Orientation: The orientation of the clock can also affect signal reception. The WWVB signal is horizontally polarized, which means that the electric field of the radio waves is oriented horizontally. If the clock and its built-in antenna are oriented in the same direction as the radio waves, this can help to improve signal reception.

    Of course, these are just theories and may not fully explain your particular situation. The behavior of radio signals can be influenced by many complex factors and can often seem unpredictable. But these factors could potentially explain why hanging your clock from a tie rack seems to improve its ability to pick up the WWVB signal.

    ME
    does the antenna built into the clock also pick up the magnetic component of the WWVB signal?

    ChatGPT
    The WWVB signal, like all electromagnetic radiation, consists of both an electric field and a magnetic field oscillating at right angles to each other. However, in typical radio communication, including the WWVB signal, it’s primarily the electric field that’s used to convey information. This is because the antennas in most radio receivers, including likely those in your atomic clocks, are designed to be sensitive to changes in the electric field.

    However, the magnetic component of the signal is not completely irrelevant. In the near field region (which is within a wavelength or so of the antenna), the magnetic field can interact significantly with the antenna. Given the frequency of the WWVB signal (60 kHz), which corresponds to a wavelength of about 5000 kilometers, this is unlikely to be a significant factor for your clocks unless they’re very close to the transmitter in Fort Collins, Colorado.

    In most practical scenarios, the magnetic component of the radio wave has little effect on the reception of the signal by a standard small antenna. But in theory, and with specially designed antennas (like loop antennas), it’s possible to use the magnetic component of a radio signal for communication. However, such antennas are not typically used in consumer devices like atomic clocks.

    So while your clocks’ antennas might be able to detect the magnetic component of the WWVB signal to some degree, they’re primarily designed to pick up the electric component of the signal.

    ME
    how is it possible for the bar on the tie rack to act as an antenna even though it is not electrically connect to the clock’s antenna?

    ChatGPT
    While it’s true that the metal bar of the tie rack isn’t electrically connected to the clock’s internal antenna, it can still potentially impact radio signal reception due to a phenomenon known as passive re-radiation.

    A metal object, such as the tie rack bar, can act as a passive radiator or re-radiator. When a radio wave hits a metal object, it can induce a current in that object. This current, in turn, can produce its own radio waves, which are re-radiated outwards from the object. This is similar to how an antenna works, but the process is passive—meaning it happens naturally whenever radio waves interact with conductive materials.

    So, in your case, when the WWVB signal hits the metal tie rack, it could induce a current in the metal, which then re-radiates the signal. This re-radiated signal can be stronger and more focused in certain directions, which might make it easier for your clock’s internal antenna to pick up, effectively amplifying the signal.

    It’s also possible that the tie rack is acting as a kind of shield, protecting your clock from other interfering signals and thus improving the reception of the WWVB signal.

    Remember, this is just a theory, and the actual behavior of radio waves can be influenced by many complex factors. But it might help explain why hanging your clock from a metal tie rack seems to improve its reception.

     

    ME
    How does the sun affect strength of WWVB captured by a clock from hundreds or thousands of miles away?

    ChatGPT
    The strength of the WWVB signal as captured by a clock can be affected by the sun in a couple of ways, primarily through the impact of solar radiation on the Earth’s ionosphere.

    The ionosphere is a region of the Earth’s atmosphere that is ionized by solar and cosmic radiation. It lies roughly 60 to 600 kilometers above the Earth’s surface and plays a key role in the propagation of radio waves.

    During the day, increased solar radiation leads to more ionization. For low-frequency signals like the WWVB signal (60 kHz), this can cause increased absorption of the signal, reducing the signal strength at the receiver.

    At night, the level of ionization in the ionosphere decreases because of the absence of solar radiation. This can lead to improved signal strength for low-frequency signals, as the radio waves can reflect off the ionosphere and travel longer distances.

    Furthermore, solar activity such as solar flares or geomagnetic storms can cause sudden disruptions in the ionosphere, which can also affect radio signal propagation.

    So the time of day, as well as overall levels of solar activity, can have a significant impact on the strength of the WWVB signal as received by your clock, even over distances of hundreds or thousands of miles.

    ME
    so how can the wwvb signal reach far over the horizon without the earth’s curvature blocking it? according to your previous explanation, the signal may not even reflect off of any atmospheric layer, or am i incorrect?

    ChatGPT
    You’re correct that the curvature of the Earth would prevent line-of-sight transmission of radio signals beyond the horizon. However, the WWVB signal, being a very low frequency (60 kHz) signal, does not rely strictly on line-of-sight propagation. Instead, it can propagate by what’s known as “ground wave” or “surface wave” propagation.

    In ground wave propagation, the radio signal is able to travel along the curvature of the Earth by inducing a current in the ground, which in turn re-radiates the signal. This mode of propagation is especially effective for low-frequency signals like the WWVB signal.

    However, you’re also correct that the signal can, under certain conditions, reflect off the ionosphere, a phenomenon known as skywave propagation. As I explained in the previous message, the ionosphere’s ability to reflect radio signals changes with the level of solar radiation it receives, which can affect the strength of the WWVB signal at different times of day and at different locations.

    So, between ground wave propagation, which allows the signal to follow the Earth’s curvature, and skywave propagation, which allows it to bounce off the ionosphere and back down to Earth, the WWVB signal can reach receivers located far beyond the horizon from the transmitter in Fort Collins, Colorado.

    ME
    so skywave propagation should be affected by time of day, right?

    ChatGPT
    Yes, you’re correct. Skywave propagation can indeed be affected by the time of day due to changes in the ionosphere.

    During the day, the ionosphere is heavily ionized due to solar radiation. This increased ionization can cause higher-frequency signals to be reflected back to Earth, while lower-frequency signals, like the WWVB signal, are more likely to be absorbed.

    However, at night, the absence of solar radiation leads to a decrease in ionization. This can change the reflective properties of the ionosphere, allowing lower-frequency signals to be reflected back to Earth.

    So, the strength of a signal received via skywave propagation can change based on the time of day. That’s why some people might notice that their reception of certain radio signals, including the WWVB signal, can be better at night compared to during the day.

    It’s worth noting that these are general trends and the actual conditions can be influenced by a variety of factors, including seasonal changes, solar activity, and atmospheric conditions.

    ME
    so around what time(s) of the day could one normally expect a wwvb signal to be strongest, when received by clocks on the west coast of USA?

    ChatGPT
    The WWVB signal strength can vary depending on various factors such as atmospheric conditions, solar activity, and distance from the transmitter. However, generally, low-frequency signals like the WWVB signal are often more reliably received during the night.

    This is due to the changes in the Earth’s ionosphere between day and night. At night, the ionosphere’s D-layer, which absorbs low-frequency signals during the day, dissipates due to the lack of solar radiation. This allows the low-frequency signals to reach the higher, reflective F-layer and be reflected back to the Earth’s surface, effectively increasing their range.

    So, if you’re on the west coast of the USA, you might expect the strongest WWVB signal during local nighttime hours. The exact times can vary, and there can be additional fluctuations due to factors like solar activity and weather conditions. But as a general trend, nighttime is usually the best time for receiving low-frequency signals like the WWVB signal.

    ME
    shouldn’t signal strength also vary according to reflection characteristics of the atmosphere that exist in between Colorado and the west coast? in other words, i would expect more hours of reflectivity available after midnight on the west coast than before midnight.

    ChatGPT
    Yes, you’re absolutely correct. The path that the signal takes from Colorado to the west coast will pass through different regions of the atmosphere, and the conditions in these regions can indeed influence the signal strength.

    Not only does the signal have to deal with the local ionospheric conditions above the receiver on the west coast, it also has to pass through the ionospheric conditions above the central part of the country.

    The ionosphere’s reflectivity changes with the sun’s position, and thus varies over the course of the day. Around sunset and sunrise, there are often changes in the ionosphere that can cause fluctuations in signal strength, known as the “gray line” effect.

    You’re correct in pointing out that the signal may have more hours of favorable reflectivity after midnight on the west coast. This is because, after midnight, the signal’s entire path from Colorado to the west coast would be in darkness, leading to decreased ionization and potentially better conditions for low-frequency signal propagation.

    However, it’s important to note that these are general trends and actual conditions can vary widely depending on numerous factors, including solar activity, weather, and seasonal changes. As always with radio signals, your mileage may vary!

    ME
    yes, i was aware of the variability of other factors, but was primarily interested in the most likely effects of time of day effects between colorado and west coast.

    ChatGPT
    Understood. Considering the time-of-day effects and the path of the WWVB signal from Colorado to the West Coast of the U.S., the best reception is generally expected during the night and early morning hours.

    As we’ve discussed, the ionosphere’s reflectivity for low-frequency signals like WWVB tends to improve after sunset and into the night, as the D-layer of the ionosphere (which absorbs these signals during the day) dissipates. This allows the signal to reach the F-layer, which reflects it back to Earth.

    Moreover, considering the westward path of the signal from Colorado to the West Coast, the hours after midnight on the West Coast (when the entirety of the signal’s path is in darkness) would likely offer the most favorable conditions for signal reception, as the entire path of the signal would be experiencing the lower ionization levels associated with nighttime.

    Again, these are general trends and actual reception can vary widely depending on a multitude of factors. But based on the time-of-day effects and the westward path of the signal, the WWVB signal would generally be expected to be strongest on the West Coast during the night and early morning hours, particularly after midnight.

     

    #50319

    PopeBeanie
    Moderator

    I keep reading people complaining that AI chat doesn’t do much for them. But for me, it often helps immensely. One or two well formed questions to ChatGPT can return a wealth of information that would take me a dozen or two Google queries to get, plus the ChatGPT response is formated, with bullet points, in one single, copyable response.

    The following is yet another “geeky” example. I don’t think you have to actually understand the technical points in this example to appreciate how ChatGPT is able to immediately understand what I’m asking it, and how its responses are relatively complete yet concise.

    In this case, I’m shopping for a MIDI controller with drum pads. I’ve landed on a Presonus Atom model, which normally includes Studio One software when you buy it new for $150, but I hope to pay for it used without the software for about $70. Before I buy it I just need to make sure I don’t need to buy the Studio One software to use this controller, and make sure that I can probably use other Digital Audio Workstation software that I already have.

    Presonus Atom

    Here’s how the conversation went:

    can i customize the buttons on a presonus atom with daw software other than studio one?

    The PreSonus ATOM is a versatile pad controller that is deeply integrated with PreSonus’s own Studio One DAW software. However, like many MIDI controllers, it can be used with other DAWs, and the buttons can typically be customized or mapped to various functions within those DAWs.

    Here are some general steps and considerations if you’re looking to customize the ATOM’s buttons with a DAW other than Studio One:

    1. MIDI Mapping: Most modern DAWs offer MIDI learn or MIDI mapping functions. You can assign the ATOM’s buttons, knobs, and pads to different parameters within the DAW by entering a MIDI learn mode and then pressing the desired button on the ATOM.

    2. Check Documentation: Always refer to the DAW’s documentation or user manual for specific instructions on MIDI mapping. This will provide guidance on how to assign the ATOM’s controls to the DAW’s functions.

    [Point #2 other points below ways to say “I dunno all the answers”, but that’s to be expected. In the end, I’ve decided to buy the used software and deal can probably with any DAW issues later.]

    3. Templates or Presets: Some DAWs might have user-created templates or presets available online that are specifically designed for the PreSonus ATOM. Searching online forums or the DAW’s user community might yield results.

    4. Functionality Limitations: While basic MIDI mapping is almost always possible, some of the deeper integrations available in Studio One (like specific color-coding of pads or certain unique features) might not be easily replicable in other DAWs without significant custom mapping or scripting.

    5. Use Middleware Software: There are software solutions, like Bome MIDI Translator Pro or ControllerMate, which can act as an intermediary between the ATOM and your DAW. They can convert incoming MIDI messages from the ATOM to specific keystrokes or other MIDI messages that your DAW recognizes, offering a deeper level of customization.

    6. Firmware and Drivers: Ensure that you have the latest firmware and drivers installed for the ATOM, as updates can sometimes expand compatibility or improve functionality with various DAWs.

    [And then the usually redundant summary]
    In conclusion, while the PreSonus ATOM is optimized for Studio One, it’s still a MIDI controller at its core and can be customized to work with most DAWs. The level of customization and ease of setup will vary depending on the DAW in question.

    ————————————

    can the presonus atom’s buttons be used to remotely click on buttons and/or adjust settings in daws other than studio one?

    Yes, the PreSonus ATOM’s buttons can be mapped to various functions in DAWs other than Studio One. Essentially, this allows you to use the ATOM as a control surface to remotely click on buttons, trigger functions, or adjust settings in many DAWs. Here’s how this generally works:

    1. MIDI Mapping: Most DAWs have a feature called MIDI learn or MIDI mapping. With this feature, you can assign the ATOM’s buttons, knobs, and pads to various parameters or functions within the DAW. When you press a button on the ATOM, it sends a specific MIDI message, and you can map this message to a corresponding function in your DAW.

    2. Control Surfaces: Some DAWs support specific control surface protocols or have built-in templates for popular controllers. While the ATOM might not have a built-in template in every DAW (like it does in Studio One), you can often manually map it as a generic MIDI device.

    3. Middleware Software: For even deeper integration or to map the ATOM’s controls to keyboard shortcuts (and not just MIDI functions), you can use software like Bome MIDI Translator Pro. This software translates MIDI messages from the ATOM into keystrokes, mouse clicks, or other MIDI messages.

    4. Limitations: While basic functions and MIDI mappings can be set up in most DAWs, some unique features of the ATOM (specifically designed for Studio One) might not be available or might require more advanced configurations to work in other DAWs.

    5. Community Resources: It’s always a good idea to check online forums, user groups, or other community resources related to your DAW. Often, other users might have already created custom mappings or templates for the ATOM and shared them with the community.

    6. Setting Up: To set up the ATOM with a specific DAW:
    – First, make sure the ATOM is correctly connected and recognized by your computer.
    – Next, open your DAW and navigate to its MIDI settings or control surface setup section.
    – From there, add or select the ATOM as a MIDI input device.
    – Use the DAW’s MIDI learn or mapping function to assign the ATOM’s buttons to the desired functions within the DAW.

    [And then the usually-redundant summary]
    Remember that while the PreSonus ATOM is designed with Studio One in mind, its capability as a MIDI controller means it has broad compatibility with many DAWs and music software. The depth of integration and ease of setup will vary depending on the specific DAW.

    #50320

    Unseen
    Participant

    I use both ChatGPT and Google Bard. Here is the question I asked Bard followed by its response. Following that, you’ll find ChatGPT’s response.  You’ll note that neither one actually gives one a firm answer:

    Given a building with 16 floors and two elevators, which floors should the elevators wait on when not in use?

    Google Bard

    The best floors for the elevators to wait on when not in use in a 16-floor building with two elevators are the 8th and 12th floors. This is because these floors are in the middle of the building, which means that they are closest to the most number of floors.

    If an elevator is waiting on the 8th floor, it is only 8 floors away from the top floor and 8 floors away from the bottom floor. This means that it can quickly reach any floor in the building with minimal travel time.

    If an elevator is waiting on the 12th floor, it is only 4 floors away from the top floor and 4 floors away from the bottom floor. This is also a good location for an elevator to wait, as it allows it to quickly reach any floor in the building.

    Another option is to have the elevators wait on the 7th and 9th floors. This is also a good location, as it is close to the middle of the building and allows the elevators to quickly reach most floors.

    The best way to decide which floors the elevators should wait on is to consider the traffic patterns in the building. For example, if there is a lot of traffic between the lobby and the top floors, then it might be a good idea to have one of the elevators wait on the top floor.

    It is also important to consider the safety of the passengers. For example, it is not a good idea to have the elevators wait on the ground floor, as this could make them vulnerable to crime.

    Ultimately, the best way to decide which floors the elevators should wait on is to consult with a professional elevator consultant.

    ChatGPT

    Deciding on the floors where elevators should wait when not in use in a building with 16 floors and two elevators can depend on various factors, including the building’s design, traffic patterns, and user preferences. However, there are some general principles and strategies that can help optimize elevator placement:

    Ground Floor (Lobby):

    One elevator should typically wait on the ground floor (lobby) when not in use. This ensures that there is always one elevator readily available for people entering the building.
    Mid-Floor:

    The second elevator can be positioned on a mid-floor, such as the 8th or 9th floor. This allows for quicker access to both upper and lower floors, as it reduces the average travel time for elevator users.
    Use of Destination Dispatch:

    Modern elevator systems often employ destination dispatch technology. With this system, passengers input their desired floor before boarding, and the system assigns them to an elevator that will optimize their travel time by grouping passengers with similar destinations. In such a system, elevator positioning may be automatically adjusted based on passenger demand.
    Consider Peak Hours:

    During peak hours, both elevators may be positioned on or near the ground floor to handle the influx of people entering and exiting the building. As traffic patterns change throughout the day, elevator positions can be adjusted accordingly.
    Monitor Traffic Patterns:

    Building management can use data analytics and monitoring systems to track elevator usage patterns over time. This information can help determine the most efficient elevator positions for different times of the day or week.
    Accessibility:

    Ensure that one elevator is readily available on the ground floor for people with mobility impairments and those who require accessibility features. This is often required by building codes and regulations.
    Emergency Response:

    One elevator should always be accessible on the ground floor to facilitate emergency response and evacuation procedures.
    It’s important to note that the ideal elevator positioning may vary depending on the specific building’s layout, user behavior, and technological features in place. Therefore, consulting with an elevator expert or using advanced elevator control systems can help optimize elevator positioning for a particular building. Additionally, local building codes and regulations may prescribe certain requirements for elevator placement in specific types of buildings.

    #50788

    PopeBeanie
    Moderator
    @unseen, somehow, 25 days ago, I missed notification that this elevator query was posted.

    Given a building with 16 floors and two elevators, which floors should the elevators wait on when not in use?

    The ChatGPT response looks more comprehensive than Bard’s, but who knows how they (and Microsoft’s offering) will evolve. ChatGPT v3.5 gave me an answer similar to what you got, but v4 looks somewhat better to me:

    ChatGPT v4
    The optimal floors for elevators to wait on when not in use in a building with 16 floors depend on several factors, including the building’s usage patterns, traffic density at different times of the day, and the design and programming of the elevator system. However, a common strategy used in many buildings to minimize average waiting time is to position elevators at floors where they can serve the maximum number of potential users in the shortest amount of time.

    Here are some general strategies and considerations:

    1. Divide and Conquer: One elevator can be positioned to serve the lower half of the building, and the other can serve the upper half. For a 16-floor building, the first elevator might wait at the 4th floor and the second elevator at the 12th floor when not in use. This way, they’re roughly equidistant from the floors they serve.

    2. Traffic Patterns: If the building has specific traffic patterns (e.g., many people coming into the building in the morning and leaving in the evening), the elevators can be positioned at the ground floor in the morning and at the topmost floor in the evening.

    3. Lobby and Common Areas: If the building has a main entrance or lobby where many people enter and exit, it’s wise to have at least one elevator near the ground floor. If there’s a common area, like a rooftop garden or a gym on a particular floor, consider having an elevator waiting near that floor during peak usage hours.

    4. Advanced Systems: Modern elevator systems can be programmed to “learn” the building’s usage patterns. These systems can adjust the waiting floors based on real-time data and historical patterns, ensuring optimal positioning throughout the day.

    5. Emergency Considerations: Some buildings might position elevators near floors with critical services, like intensive care units in hospitals, to ensure rapid response in emergencies.

    6. Energy Consumption: Some modern elevators can move to a specific floor when not in use to minimize energy consumption. If the elevator uses a counterweight system, the energy used can vary depending on the elevator’s position in the building.

    7. Feedback Systems: Some advanced elevators have feedback systems where users can indicate their intended destination before entering the elevator. This system can predict where demand will be and position the elevators accordingly.

    It’s also worth noting that while initial positioning is essential, elevators’ efficiency also depends on other factors, such as door opening/closing times, speed, and the system’s ability to handle simultaneous requests.

    In practical scenarios, elevator consultants or building managers often use a combination of the strategies mentioned above, tailored to the building’s specific needs and patterns.

    I feel the need for further clarification. How one words the query (or “prods” the process) will often shape the response. If you want to skip the details, the conclusion seems adequate.

    ME: All things being equal, the top floor only houses a sixteenth of the building’s occupants in the evening, so why would it be better to loiter at the top floor instead of the 12th floor in the evening? Is there a tradeoff here between energy consumption vs wait times for each floor?

    v4: Yes, there is a trade-off between energy consumption and wait times for elevator positioning. Let’s delve deeper into the scenario you provided.

    Positioning Elevator at the Top Floor in the Evening:

    1. Wait Times: If you assume that most people are returning home in the evening and the majority of the building’s occupants reside between the 1st and 15th floors, positioning the elevator on the top (16th) floor may lead to longer wait times for these residents. They would have to wait for the elevator to travel from the 16th floor to their respective floors.

    2. Energy Consumption: Elevators use a counterweight system. When the elevator car is at the top, the counterweight is at the bottom. If most people are going up to their residences in the evening, the elevator will mostly be traveling upward with a load (passengers) and downward without a load. When the elevator is loaded, the counterweight assists in lifting, reducing energy consumption when traveling upwards. Conversely, when the elevator is empty or lightly loaded traveling downward, it uses less energy because it’s assisted by the counterweight. Positioning the elevator at the top floor can, therefore, be energy-efficient in this scenario, as the loaded upward journeys are assisted and the empty downward journeys naturally consume less energy.

    Positioning Elevator at the 12th Floor in the Evening:

    1. Wait Times: Positioning the elevator on the 12th floor reduces the wait time for a more significant portion of the building’s residents in the evening, assuming most residents are returning home. It’s a more central position, leading to quicker response times for both lower and upper floors compared to the 16th floor.

    2. Energy Consumption: From an energy perspective, the elevator would still benefit from the counterweight system, though the energy savings might be slightly less optimal than positioning at the 16th floor, given the loaded/unloaded travel patterns.

    Conclusion:

    If the primary goal is to reduce energy consumption, positioning the elevator at the top floor in the evening could be more energy-efficient. However, if the primary goal is to reduce wait times and provide better service to a more significant portion of the building’s occupants, the 12th floor might be a more strategic position.

    In practical scenarios, the difference in energy consumption between these positions might be marginal, and thus user convenience (reduced wait times) often becomes the more critical factor to consider. Modern elevator systems, especially those with regenerative drives, can recapture some of the energy during descent, further minimizing the differences in energy consumption based on positioning.

    The last sentence there was a nice touch wrt regenerative drives, something I hadn’t thought of before. Hey, this is the “extra geeky chat” topic! So I asked more about it:

    ME: what kind of regenerative drives are most common, e.g. do they store energy in batteries, elevated weights, or what?

    v4: Regenerative drives, often found in modern elevator systems, capture excess energy usually dissipated as heat during braking or when the elevator descends with a heavy load (or ascends with a light load). The regenerative drive converts this excess energy back to electrical energy which can be used elsewhere. Here’s a look at the common systems:

    1. Back to the Grid: This is the most common type of regenerative drive for elevators. Instead of storing the regenerated energy, it’s fed back into the building’s electrical grid. This not only reduces the elevator system’s net energy consumption but can also reduce the overall energy costs for the building.

    2. Battery Storage: Some systems can store the regenerated energy in batteries. The energy stored in these batteries can then be used during power outages, peak demand times, or when the elevator is under heavy use. This system is less common than the back-to-grid approach, primarily due to the added complexity and maintenance of the battery system.

    3. Flywheel Energy Storage: This involves using the regenerated energy to spin a flywheel, which can store energy kinetically. When the energy is needed, the flywheel’s rotational energy is converted back to electrical energy. Flywheels can deliver energy quickly and efficiently but are less commonly used in elevator systems compared to other applications due to their size and the specific nature of elevator energy demand.

    4. Supercapacitors: Supercapacitors, or ultracapacitors, can store and release energy faster than traditional batteries. They have a longer life cycle and can handle more charge-discharge cycles than batteries without significant degradation. In some applications, they can be used to store short-term energy from regenerative drives.

    5. Elevated Weights (Potential Energy Storage): While this is an intriguing concept — using the regenerated energy to elevate a weight, storing the energy as potential gravitational energy, and then releasing it when needed — it’s not commonly used in elevator systems. The system would be somewhat redundant given the presence of the counterweight system in elevators, and the efficiency gains might not justify the added complexity.

    Of these, feeding energy back to the grid is the most prevalent method in commercial buildings due to its simplicity and direct benefits in terms of energy cost savings. Battery storage is becoming more viable as battery technology advances and costs decrease, especially in scenarios where uninterrupted elevator service is crucial or where grid energy costs are variable based on demand.

    Sidenote. It hadn’t even occurred to me until re-reading the above that there are two morning vs evening floor optimizations. In residences, people ingress in the evening and egress in the morning. In business locations, it’s the opposite. (So I should have added that to the first query’s scenario. Subsequent responses would probably have also automatically considered the wider, building-type context.)

    • This reply was modified 4 months, 1 week ago by  PopeBeanie. Reason: added the sidenote
    #50805

    Unseen
    Participant

    Bard is frustrating because sometimes it will say something like “I’m just a language model” (which seems just a little disingenuous for an AI to say) and then declines to answer the question.

    However, rephrase it a bit and then it will answer it when for the life of me I can’t detect a dime’s worth of difference between the two queries.

    #50806

    _Robert_
    Participant

    The AI would be initialized with the best starting guess and then learn over time to optimize. The priorities need to be ranked…energy, speed, time to key floors such as the lobby. The AI would have to access the current date and time, of course and to be smart enough to disregard any periods when accurate date and time may be unavailable. The longer it works the better it should become according to the priorities. It should not be allowed to set the priorities.

    #50807

    PopeBeanie
    Moderator

    However, rephrase it a bit and then it will answer it when for the life of me I can’t detect a dime’s worth of difference between the two queries.

    I have two challenges each time I chat with it.

    One is to word my query concisely, and in a way that “anyone” could probably understand. I appreciate taking on that challenge, as I feel that challenge to write clearly, even here at AZ. It’s good practice.

    The second challenge, which is new, is to try to think of queries, responses, and conversations, in terms of “what the internet would say”. That’s pretty much the only source that current AI chat “knows”. So I try to imagine, which is not always easy, what kinds of expertise, official references (e.g. published physics, medical, or whatever journals) are open access and available… and even what kinds of “amateur” conversations exist on the net that can be scraped from whatever (say) Google can access for its search engine. (Even poetry, and other artistic “knowledge”, for that matter.)

    I.e. the basis for all of AI chat’s “knowledge”, at this stage, is from purely human sources. That includes cliche’s, quotes, idioms, sayings… all that human language stuff, so much of it we just take for granted without thinking about it. The Large Language Model (LLM) in our brains is awesomely spectacular with its abilities to both understand language and the complex, abstract concepts that language enables us to consume, and then spit out practically at will, all while we just take it for granted. It just cannot be overstated how this purely human ability is unlike any other animal’s. I like to use the term “preternatural” for our abilities.

    Well, I had to go off once again on a personal rant, but I do feel passionate about it. LLMs are amazing, and it’s so interesting how we can teach computers to calculate connections between words, phrases, and even between complete works of knowledge… like how humans aspire to do.

    Summary: Talk to AI chat as if you’re trying to reach out to specific, human sources of knowledge. And when it comes back with odd answers, think of it as trying to communicate in a foreign language, in two-way dialogs, both parties learning from each other in each chat session.

    #51728

    PopeBeanie
    Moderator

    So without posting lengthy responses from ChatGPT, I’ll list some of the queries that I feel I’ve gotten great responses to. (In fact I’d say 90% of my queries have been adequately or more than adequately responded to.)

    It looks like I’m inheriting a couple of northern CA groups to manage, both related to skepticism and critical thinking. “Local” means with parties interested in occasional face-to-face meetings. I’ve paid $ to an online venue to keep member interest alive, but it’s an expense I cannot sustain. So I plan to focus on merging both groups into one group, and giving both groups at least two choices for online venues.

    My (paraphrased) query to ChatGPT: I’d like to be able to run online meetings on more than one venue simultaneously, e.g. I’d like to run Google Meet and Discord at the same time, while having all members see and/or hear (to the largest extent possible) what’s going on during a meeting, in the venue they’re not logged into.

    ChatGPT responded with a few interesting suggestions, and I decided that using OBS might be the best solution. So I asked for details on OBS… and it gave me more than I asked for, suggesting that I could even add a live stream to YouTube with it. (I’m just about ready to upgrade from cable internet to fiber internet… this is a good time to do that!)

    —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —–

    I asked ChatGPT how to scrape a web page for data. (For example, maybe I could index all Sunday School topics.)

    It suggested a few things, and I chose to look into “Beautiful Soup”, which runs on Python. But I’ve no experience with Python, so I asked about its computer and software requirements, and GPT came back with great answers, including setup steps, courses and interactive learning platforms, online forums and communities, and books… more than I was looking for.

    —– —– —– —– —– —– —–

    I was going to show more examples here, out of over a hundred or so queries that returned useful answers, but… geez, I gotta get busy now.

    Well okay, short list: Gaza Tunnel History; medications; CDC data on youth mortality; Free Will quotes; microphone vs instrument impedances; supreme court appointment by presidential term; human genetic evolution in parallel with cultural evolution; face mask studies; social security benefits while living abroad; can fungi get infected; honey bee origins, phenotypes, and retroviruses, predators that predate on murder hornets; epigenetics in metamorphosis; half-life of magnesium in humans; suggested android apps (because google sucks at showing you the highest rated ones); new cliches and lingo that go over my old head; names that conservatives, liberals, and libertarians call each other; how to interpret fault plane beach ball diagrams in earthquake reports; “which episode of Better Call Saul is about someone faking an injury in traffic, and suing?”, in detail; latin music styles overview; different types of limb cramps experienced only at night; about Marc Chagall; Yiddish schticks; pulsing arteries that can be felt with a finger.

    —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —–

    Yeah, I know I’m the weirdest one here. But for me, it’s fun as hell.

    Later…

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